Posada-Charrúa, J.
Product number: Kaleidoskop 48
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Eleven model rhythms and four pieces offer a wealth of interesting material from Latin America. Difficulty: easy to medium difficulty

1. Milonga (Argentina)
2. Zamba (Argentina)
3. Baiao (Brasil)
4. Bossa Nova (Brasil)
5. Samba (Brasil)
6. Guambina (Columbia)
7. Habanera (Cuba)
8. Rumba (Ruba)
9. Fandango (España)
10.Cha-Cha-Cha (Mittelamerika)
11.Malambo (Argentina/Uruguay)

The booklet INDIO presents four South American tunes and eleven South American rhythm-models. The single parts - also those of the tunes - are mainly ostinatos, which makes this music practicable not only for advanced players, but also for `advanced beginners'.


The instrumentation proposed in this book should be considered as one possibility of performance. In practice the selection of instruments should of course be adapted to the complement of the group. Nevertheless, a glockenspiel, a xylophone, a bass instrument, a drum, claves, a tambourine or bongos and a guitar (not for the rhythm-models) are required:
The flute-parts should, if possible, be played by a quena. If there is no quena at hand, a recorder (alto and/or tenor) together with a German flute may imitate its sound. The bombo can be replaced either by a double head-drum or a -not too much tightened- bass drum, which is beaten with a medium hard mallet. The difference in tone-colours between beats' on the edge and on the skin of the drum is important.

With quena, bombo and guitar, the instrumentation of this tune is typical for Peru. "Indio" is a very calm lament- and love song.
In accordance with the increasing density in this piece, loudness and intensity of playing should also increase. So it may be advised to begin with only one guitar in the 8-section and then adds another guitar in the following section. The C-section should be complemented by two bombos, so that one can either improvise or support the guitar-rhythm.

Originally, the Carnavalito, an old social dance, was only played during carnival. It presents many old square dances from Argentina and Bolivia, where nowadays it is played and danced throughout the year.
The time for this tune should not be too fast, but on the other hand the bombo-player should always keep in mind that he represents a forward-pushing element in this tune. Of course, the flute-part may be supported by a melody instrument an octave above.

This tune comes from Venezuela. It is characterized by the contrast of different sections:
Bar 1 to 12 and 21 to 28 are calm and tuneful, whereas bar 13 to 20 and 29 to 36 have a vivacious, rhythmical character. The forward pushing rhythm of the triplets is supported by an increased density of the supporting voices.
The percussion-part may be enriched by parts of the rhythm-model "Milonga" (page 16). The basic time should not be too slow and must be kept.

This Zamba is an Argentinean dancing-song, played in a calm three-four or six-eight time: Both times are always played together: If the melody is in six-eight time, at least one of the supporting voices will stress the three-four time. 
If, on the other hand, the melody appears in a three-four time, you will  
find the six-eight time in one of the supporting voices.
The rhythm-model "Zamba" (page 16) in this book offers additional percussion parts for this tune.


The rhythm-models are structured as follows: The first two lines present the basic rhythm of each model. All the other lines present characteristic supplement and variations, they are ad lib. parts. So it is possible to work only with few parts and still realize a sound-pattern, adequate to the basic rhythm.
The basic model of four bars may be extended by adding two further pairs of bars. In this case it is useful to do use the lines further down.
The suggested instrumentation is to be looked at as one possibility of performing. If the instrumentation is changed, attention must be paid to the fact that complementary rhythms can be demonstrated and heard best if played on different sounding instruments.
Of course, the use of characteristics `body instruments' as clapping, slapping, snapping, stamping is possible.
To the rhythms, performed in the way described above, you may improvise with melody instruments or voice and add texts, active games, body improvisations, dances, etc.


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